Prevention And Control Of Type 2 Diabetes
Type 2 diabetes is usually preceded by a period of years in which a person has elevated Blood glucose levels but does not meet diagnostic criteria for diabetes. This state is referred to as “prediabetes”. Individuals with prediabetes are diagnosed with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or impaired fasting glucose (IFG), or both.
The Mediterranean diet has demonstrated its efficacy in the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, also proving its effectiveness in the prevention of vascular complications.
A Mediterranean diet is based on:
• High intake of fruits and vegetables.
High intakes of fruits and vegetables are consistently associated with significant reductions in cardio-vascular disease risk and improved blood glucose control.
Legumes are excellent sources of protein, low-glycaemic index carbohydrates, essential micronutrients, and fiber. Consumption of low-Glycaemic index foods delays the return of hunger, decreases subsequent food intake, and increases the sensation of fullness compared to High-glycaemic index foods.
• Cereals (in particular whole grain, rich in fiber)
Carbohydrates induce a response in terms of insulin production. Sucrose, although not prohibited, should be replaced by other carbohydrate sources. The use of fructose as a sweetener is not recommended. The use of fiber-rich foods should be encouraged in people with diabetes, prediabetics as well as in the general population.
• Animal sources of proteins (primary fish, while red meat, poultry and eggs are consumed in moderate amounts).
A moderate decrease in protein intake is effective in combating diabetic nephropathy and should therefore be planned in diabetic patients with this complication.
• Olive oil as main fat source (containing Vitamin E and monounsaturated fatty acid)
• moderate milk and dairy products Consumption as most contain fats
• Moderate alcohol consumption (almost exclusively red wine during meals)
If you have established type 2 Diabetes, I strongly discourage you from soft drinks, commercial bakery foods, pastries, Spread fats, red and processed meat. These will increase the amount of sugar taken at once and due to insulin resistance, it’ll cause a surge in blood glucose levels within a short period of time that insulin won’t effectively manage. They’ll also cause adiposity and cardiovascular complications which increases the risk of Diabetes
Exercise and physical activity
Because obesity and sedentary lifestyle drives the underlying pathology of type 2 diabetes, it seems intuitive that an intervention that combines caloric restriction with an increase in exercise or physical activity is the most effective approach to prevent progression to diabetes in high-risk individuals.
Aerobic exercise increases the lipid oxidative capacity of muscle cells, decreases the amount of lipid products stored in skeletal muscle, increases glucose uptake by muscle during physical activity and promotes the storage of glucose in muscle after exercise.
Resistive training increases muscle mass, elevates the resting metabolic rate, increases GLUT4 protein content, and improves glucose metabolism through increased glycogen synthase activity within the trained muscle.